Best Education Notes for B.Ed Class and Headmaster test.
Some Definitions of Teaching:
According to Burton:
“Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning”.
According to T.F Green:
“Teaching is the task of teacher which is performed for the development of a child”.
According to N.L. Gage:
“Teaching is a process of establishing inters personal relationships between the teacher and the taught. In this sense, teaching becomes a cooperative act”.
According to Brubacher:
“An arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps and obstruction which an individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in the cause of doing so”.
According to Hyman:
“Teaching involves a trade of elements (the teacher, the pupil, the subject matter) and this trade is dynamic in quality.
According to Hugh and Duncan:
“Teaching is an activity, a unique professional, rational human activity in which one creatively and imaginatively uses himself and his knowledge to promote the learning and welfare of others”.
The Nature of Teaching:
Having considered a number of definitions of teaching, we are in a position to discuss the various aspects of the true nature of teaching. These are given as under:
The modern concept of the nature of teaching is that it is triangular or tripolar process (teacher child, and the subject matter).
- Teaching is a chain of activities.
- The goal of all teaching is a desirable change in behavior.
- Teaching is an intimate contact between a mature person and immature one.
- Teaching is an interactive process.
- Teaching is giving information.
- Teaching is causing to learn.
- Teaching is a direction.
- Teaching is an encouragement.
- Teaching is stimulating learning.
- Teaching is a giving guidance.
Teaching involves a large number of activities, which leads to the child are all around development.
Arrangement and Manipulation of situation (Teaching causes learning, during the process, the teaching is likely to face a number of obstructions, which he must overcome. For this purpose, he requires to arrange and manipulate situations in such a manner as to overcome the obstructions).
- Teaching is helping the child to make effective adjustment to his environment.
- Teaching is helping the child to develop emotional stability.
- Teaching is a profession and the act of teaching is a professional activity.
- Teaching is an art as well as a science. The art of teaching brings into play the teacher’s inborn talents.
Principles of Teaching:
Principles of effective teaching may be discussed under two heads, act of good teaching essentially demands that the teacher should know the child’s mind: and he must also understand the methods he is employing for teaching. The teacher’s method must conform to the child nature as well as the content in hand. To be successful in teaching, the teacher must under:
- General principles of teaching.
- Psychological principles of teaching.
- General Principles of Teaching:
Following are the general principles of teaching:
- The principle of aim (There should be a definite aim for every lesson).
- The principle of activity.
- The principle of linking with actual life.
- The principle of knowledge of entering behavior.
- The principle of planning (Good teaching is always planned, planning involved selection, division and revision).
- The principle of subject mastery.
- The principle of pupil participation.
- The principle of correlation (Sub units of the topic are correlated with each other).
- The principle of utilizing past experience.
- The principle of suggestiveness (Good teaching is suggestive rather than authoritative).
- The principle of liberating the learner.
- The principle of repetition and exercise.
- The principle of looking ahead (Good teaching looks ahead while it also takes into account the past experiences of the children).
- Psychological Principles of Teaching:
Successful teaching is as much a matter of psychology as of theory. Theory teaching is translated into general principles while the psychology of teaching is translated into psychological principles, which over classroom environment, student’s motivation, reinforcement and feedback. Principles based on the psychological principles. Hence, the teacher should change his subject matter, environment and methods of teaching from time to time, so that the students remain interested in the teaching learning process. The teacher should introduce some recreation in the process of teaching in order to maintain the interest of the students.
- The principle of feedback and reinforcement.
- The principle of providing training to senses.
- The principle of utilizing group dynamics ( in group behavior, a student thinks in manner in which other students in the group think).
- The principle of encouraging self learning.
- The principle of fostering creativity and self expression.
- The principle of remedial teaching.
To Sum up:
Good teaching is kindly and sympathetic, stimulating, progressive, diagnostic, remedial, full of guided activity linked with real life and librates the learner to do without the teacher. Whatever be the nature of the lesson, the teacher should never loose sight of these principles.
Meaning and Concept of Teaching Methods:
Teaching method is a style of the presentation of content in classroom. It has presented broad meaning of the term “Method”.
Broudy (1963): has stated that “Method” refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction. The term method covers both strategies and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught and in which order is it to be presented”.
Maxims of Teaching:
Teaching activities and instructional procedure are performed by using maxims of teaching.
The term “Maxims of Teaching” may be defined as rules for presenting difficult terms and concepts to make them easy to comprehend in classroom teaching.
The following are the main features of a maxim of teaching.
- Teaching maxims helps in organizing teaching activities.
- It makes presentation of terms and concept easily understandable.
- It enables teacher to make his communication effective for the mental level of the students.
- It is important component of instructional procedure, which is used in designing and presenting content in an effective way.
Types of Maxims of Teaching:
Teaching activities and tasks of teaching are organized and performed in various ways. Even a concept is presented in different ways. It is the teacher who decides the way of his teaching activities based on his experiences and insight and in view of learners comprehension level. Therefore, awareness of these maxims of essential for teacher. The following are some important maxims of teaching.
- From simple to complex.
- From known to unknown.
- From part to whole.
- From whole to part.
- From concrete to abstract.
- From direct to indirect.
- From particular to general.
- From analysis to synthesis.
- From empirical to rationale.
- From psychological to logical.
- To follow nature etc.
Features of Good Teaching:
Following are the features of good teaching.
- Good teaching is stimulating.
- Good teaching is not a matter of pouring in, but drawing out.
- Good teaching is not a passive act, but an active process.
- Good teaching is a mature skill.
- Good teaching is involves a skill in guiding.
- Good teaching is well planned.
- Good teaching is a means of adjustment.
- Good teaching is a organization of learning.
- Good teaching is suggestive and cooperative.
- Good teaching is kindly and sympathetic.
- Good teaching is democratic.
- Good teaching is equipping the child for future.
- Good teaching is both diagnostic and remedial.
- Good teaching is correlative.
- Good teaching liberates the learner.
Phases of Teaching:
The activities in teaching carry special importance. Its main cause is that though these activities, the pupils get much assistance in learning. In other words, the learning experiences are acquired in a natural way. It should be remembered that these activities are different in the different phase of teaching. The teaching phases are as follow.
- Pre active phase of teaching:
In the pre active phase of teaching the planning of teacher is carried over. This phase includes all those activities which a teacher performs before classroom teaching or before entering the classroom.
Following activities are included in pre active phase of teaching.
- Fixation of goals.
- Decision making about the subject matter.
- Arranging/ sequencing the elements of content for presentation.
- Decision about the strategies of teaching.
- Distribution of teaching strategies.
- Interactive Phase of Teaching:
In the interactive phase of teaching all those activities are included which a teacher over right from entering the classroom till the presentation of the contents. In the P.W Jackson’s words, “The explanations, ask questions, listen to students, response and provides guidance”.
The following activities are included in the interactive phase of teaching.
- Sizing up of the class.
- Diagnosis of the learners.
- Action and reaction or achievement.
- The action and reaction activities included the following activities.
- Selection of the stimuli.
- Feedback and reinforcement.
- Deployment of strategies.
- Post Active Phase of Teaching:
In this phase of teaching, as the teacher sums up, the teacher asks the questions from the pupils, verbally or in written form, to measure the behavior of the pupils so that their achievements may be evaluated correctly. Therefore, evaluation aspect includes all those activities, which can evaluate the achievements of the pupils and attainment of the objectives. The following activities are considered in the post active phase of teaching.
- Defining the exact dimension of the changes caused by teaching.
- Selecting appropriate testing devices and techniques.
- Changing the strategies in terms of evidence gathered.
Teaching strategy is the means to achieve learning objectives.
- Stone and S. Morris have defined the term teaching strategy comprehensively in the following manner.
“Teaching strategy is a generalized plan for a lesson which includes structure, desired learner behavior in terms of goals of instruction and an outline of planned tactics necessary to implement the strategy. The lesson strategy is a part of a larger development scheme of the curriculum”.
Meaning and Concept of Teaching Method:
Broudy (1963) has stated “Method refers to the formal structure of the sequence of acts commonly denoted by instruction. The term “Method” covers both strategies and tactics of teaching and involves the choice of what is to be taught and in which order is it to be presented”.
Teaching method is a style of the presentation of content in classroom. It has presented broad meaning of the term “Method”. According to this matter is important for determining method. The common teaching matter may be of three types, hence all the methods can be classified under three heads.
- Telling Method Lecture, Questioning, Discussion, etc.
- Showing Method Demonstration, Excursion, etc.
- Doing Method Project, Role-playing, Practical, etc.
Strategy: How to achieve goals?
Method: How to present?
Technique: How to implement?
Tactics These are related with the achievement of objectives. These relate to strategy. These are used to achieve the goals.
Teaching is a process.
Instruction is a direction.
Learning is a change.
It is from Greek word “Strategos” Stratos means army and agein mean to lead.
Military planning of war, the science or art of planning and conducting a war or a military campaign.
Planning is any field, a carefully devised plan of education to achieve a goal or the art of developing or carrying out such a plan.
Art of planning.
Via Latin From Greek, Methods, which means “Pursuit” from meta “after” and hodos means “journey”.
Way of doing something, a way of something or carrying something out, especially according to a plan.
Orderliness, orderly thought, action or technique.
Body of scientific technique, the body of systematic techniques used by a particular discipline, especially a scientific one.
Order, organization and planning for doing something are emphasized.
Via from Greek tekhnikos which means “of art”.
Procedure or skill used in a task, the procedure skill or art used in a particular task.
Way in which the basics are treated, the way in which the basics of something, for example, an artistic work or a sport are treated.
Skill in handling the technique of something skill or expertise in handling the technique of something a pianist with superb technique.
Special ability, a special work or knack.
Special ability or art is emphasized.
Via modern Latin from Greek “Taktikos” which means “of arrangements” from taktos “arranged” “from tessein to “to arrange”.
Literally method used or a course of action followed in order to achieve an immediate or short-tem aim.
Arrangement of the course of actions for immediate or short term aim is emphasized.
Strategy: It means, artistically, skillful way, broader sense.
Methods: Method depends upon on the nature of content.
Main methods are, telling, doing and showing.
Some methods also fall in strategy for example, lecture method, project method.
Techniques belong to methods.
Method is also abstract, techniques are psychological in nature and techniques are used for the implementation of methods.
Types of Techniques:
Following are the types of techniques.
- Questioning, Discussion, Exposition, Illustration, Story telling, Narration, Supervised study.
- Techniques play a role of bridge between strategy and method.
- There are two major teaching strategies:
The direct strategy is highly teacher centered and is among the most commonly used.
Indirect instruction seeks a high level of student involvement in observing, investigating drawing inferences from data or forming hypothesis.
It is an educational approach characterized by teacher centeredness, it is also known as art, science, profession or study of teaching.
Andragogy consists of learning strategies focused on teaching adults. It is often interpreted as the process of engaging adult learners in the structure of the learning experiences.
A number of people contributed to the theories of pedagogy, among these are, Benjamin Bloom, Maria Montessori, John Dewey, Johann Heinrich Pestalozi, Jean Piaget, Friedrich Froeble, Lev Vyogtsky etc.
General Methods of Teaching:
Methods may be defined as a systematic procedure adopted for the attainment of some specific objectives.
The need of right methods of teaching cannot be underestimated in an ideal system of education. In fact the problem of method can no more be ignored in any system of educational philosophy and practice than that of the aim or the curriculum? “Even the best curriculum and the most perfect syllabus remains ineffective unless quickened into life by the right methods of teaching”.
Now a days more and more emphasis is being laid on improvement of teaching methods since the traditional methods are not trustworthy in fulfilling the objectives.
This is a method which is generally followed in colleges and in schools with big classes. In this method only the teacher talks, the students are passive listeners and they do not take any active part.
This is the most powerful technique for imprinting material on the mind and moving to longer-term memory.
The recall method or recitation method improves memory and learning in following ways.
- It forces you to decide what is most important in what you read.
- It forces you to put the material in your own words.
- It brings you to full alertness because it is a very active and demanding technique.
- It reveals whether you really did grasp the material.
The discussion method of teaching is a process in which a small group assembles to communicate with each other, using speaking, listening and nonverbal processes in order to achieve instructional objectives. There are group members, who have reciprocal influence over one another and they are affected by the behavior of one another in the group. The participants use the available time to communicate with each other.
Forms or types of discussion:
In this type of discussion, three or more persons present their views on a several sided question or topic.
The panel discussion:
Here few people with different backgrounds and experiences discuss a thing while other listens.
Information group discussion:
Here the pupil is the leader of the discussion activities. Leadership qualities are developed in the leader.
Formalized group discussion:
Here there is a discussion leader and there are several resources members who represent special skills and specialized knowledge essential to the problems which the group is discussing and there is a recorder. The leader keeps the discussion on the track. At intervals, he summarizes the discussion and clarifies the discussion before the next point. No confusion should prevail.
Institutional forms of socialized procedure:
It has become popular to cast the class into one of many forms of social organization the exist in the community. Such we can have mock parliament, a party convention and all that. This way, we can get the feel of our democratic limitations.
In this method, the teacher really teaches, students are active participants in a demonstration and their faculties of observation and reasoning are properly exercised. It is based on work out something, then, and only then, the students will believe. This is
The term “heuristic” has been borrowed from the word “heurism” it means “discover or investigate”. The purpose of communication is to develop the tendency of investigation. Arm Strong is the exponent of this strategy. It is based upon the assumption of Herbert Spencer that the learner should be told as little as possible and he should be encouraged to learn himself as much as possible.
Polio and Danker (1945) have mentioned this strategy in their article “Problem solving”. The strategy involves “trial and error” and invention techniques. This strategy is very economical and speedy. It requires more logical and imaginative thinking in formulating the number tentative solutions for the problem.
It is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting (Kilpatrick).
A project is a test of real life that has been imported in school. (Ballard).
It is voluntary undertaking, which involves constructive efforts or thought and eventuates into subjective result. (Yhornos Long).
It is a unit of activity in which pupils are made responsible for planning and purposing. (Parker)
Steps in project method: Following are the steps of project method of teaching.
- Provision of a situation.
- Selection of objectives.
Activity method emphasizes the creative and spontaneous aspects of experience. Activity method brings the students close to the real life situation. They get first hand experience in an environment in which they are performing certain activity.
Anything which is carried out with a purpose in a social environment involving physical and mental action is an activity.
Problem Solving Method:
Problem-solving method occurs in difficult situations in which a solution is not obtainable by the habitual methods of applying concepts and principles, derived from past experience in very similar situations.
We may define problem solving as: “A manner of dealing with that, which is problematic. A method involving clear definition of problems confronted formation of hypothetical solutions hunch or suggestion, deliberate test of hypothesis until evidence warrants its acceptance”.
There are two methods of problem solving.
- Inductive: In this method, generalizations are drawn from particulars. Principles are farmed from observation and rules are made from instances or examples.
- Deductive: In this process, rules, principles and conclusions are applied to particular cases.
- Inductive Method: In this method, the child is enabled to arrive at the general conclusion, establish laws or formulate generalization through the observation of particular facts and concrete examples.
- Deductive Method: It is the opposite of the inductive method. Here the learner proceeds from general to particular, abstract to concrete and formula to examples.
- Drill Method: Models that rely on practice are used extensively where the purpose of instruction is to enable students to acquire a skill or a proficiency in doing some overt act. Often it is intermingled with recitation and discussion methods, such as a courses in foreign languages, mathematics, music and art and in athletic programs of all kinds.
- Question Answer Method: Question answer method is also known as Socratic Strategy. It is developed by the famous philosopher Socrates. He assumes that all knowledge within the learner and teacher has to unfold. He further assumes that teacher should present the subject matter in such a way that learner recognizes the truth he can identify himself with it.
Types of questions in Socratic Methods: The following are the main types of questions.
- Introductory Questions.
- Developing Questions.
- Recapitulatory Questions.
- Evaluatory Questions.
- Didactic questions: These questions are used for providing new knowledge to the students.
- Testing questions: These questions are used assessing and diagnosis purpose.
- Group Differentiated Method: Group differentiated method is based on the principle that no student is particularly different from any group or class of students. All students are equally capable and efficient. It is a balanced instruction for individuals and groups.
Thus, we may define group instruction as, “This instruction is imparted collectively to a group of students at the same time and place”. Therefore, we can say that it is not specified/ restricted to a single student rather it focuses on all students equally.
Innovative Methods of Teaching:
Following are the innovative methods of teaching.
Micro Teaching: in order to understand the concept of micro teaching more clearly and precisely, let us study the expert views on it.
According to Allen:
“A scaled down teaching encounter is class size and class time”. In this way, teaching is reduced to simple form. Size of the class is reduced to 5-10 students. Duration of teaching period is reduced 5-10 minutes.
According to Bush:
“A teacher education technique which allows teachers to apply well defined teaching skills to a carefully prepared lesson in a planned series of five to ten minutes encounter with small group of real class room students, often with an opportunity to observe the performance on video tape”.
According to B.K. Passi:
“Micro teaching is a training technique which requires pupil teachers to teach a single concept, using specific teaching skills to small number of pupils in a short duration of time”.
Characteristics of Micro Teaching:
On the basis of above definitions, following are the main features or characteristics of micro teaching.
- Real teaching situation.
- Scaled down teaching (class size 5-10 students, time 5-10 minutes)
- Individualized teaching.
- More controlled.
- Feedback mechanism.
Etymologically, the word simulation is derived from the word “Simulate” which means to reproduce certain conditions by means of model, for study or training purposes. So, simulation refers to operation in which real situation is represented in another form.
Simulation, by definition, is an artificial situation of the student teacher in the various class room situations. In other words, it is meant to create artificial situations, which provide artificial experiences for the participants.
Programmed instruction is a new innovation which is the result of the experimental study of the learning process in the psychological laboratory. It is infact, the first application of laboratory technique utilized in the study of the learning process to the practical problems of education.
According to Dr. N.S. Mavi:
“Programmed instruction is a technique of converting the live instructional process into self learning or auto instructional readable material in the form of micro sequences”.
Computer Assisted Instruction (C.A.I.):
In the CAI, the computer interacts directly with the learners while presenting lessons. It delivers instruction directly to students and allows them to interact with the computer through the lessons programmed in the system. The computer’s ability to engage in instructional “dialogue” with the student while delivering information makes it adaptable to any number of instructional situations. It can facilitate various instructional modes.
Team teaching is comparatively new idea in the field of education. It is one of the innovations in instructional organization to ensure optimum use of resources, interest, and expertise. It was originated in American education in 1954. It has assumed many dimensions and is now a big movement.
According to Shaplin:
“Team teaching is a type of instructional organization, involving teaching personnel and the students assigned to them, in which two or more teachers are given responsibility of working together, for all or a significant part of the instruction of some group of students”.
According to Michael J. Apter:
“Team teaching involves bringing together a number of classes whose teaching is then the joint responsibility of the teachers of these classes who now constitute a team”.
While family is the first and basic of the primary groups with which a child is associated, peer group interactions soon become frequent, the playgroup for the small child and the teenage clique for the adolescent. The peer group provides significant learning experiences in how to interact with others, how to be accepted by others and how to achieve a status in a circle of friends.
In teaching world even we take a small group of pupils, we do not find children alike. So individuality exists all around us. We cannot deny this fact and to make teaching more effective we should accept this reality.
In other words, that is “to consider one’s level and desire”. Thus, individual method provides for an individual child, facilities of instruction, keeping in view his needs, intelligence and motivation, rate of learning, capacity and aim of life.
In short, we can say, that it would bring confidence, self-respect and self-reliance in children. In modern ear, a child centered education system is thought as the best. Therefore, it is needed to prefer the individual brought up to make teaching and training meaningful.
Cooperative learning takes many forms within classrooms. Its essential characteristics are that it fosters positive interdependence by teaching students to work and learn together in a small group setting. Traditional cooperative learning groups consist of three or four students who work on an assignment or project together in such a way that each group member contribute to the learning process and then learns all the basic concepts being taught. Both individual students and the group as a whole are held accountable for the outcome. Cooperative learning provides unique learning experiences for students and offers an alternative to competitive models of education. It is especially beneficial to students who learn best through social or group learning processes. It offers opportunities for students to learn through speaking and listening processes (oral language) as well as through reading and writing processes (written language)
Cooperative learning offers many benefits for students, it improves both academic learning and social skills, for teachers, it is an aid to classroom management and instruction.
Characteristics of cooperative Learning: Following are the characteristics of Cooperative Learning.
Uses small groups of three or four students (micro groups)
Focuses on tasks to be accomplished.
Mandates individual responsibility to learn.
Ports division of labor.
Educational teleconferencing can be valuable medium for interactive group communication by means of a two way broadcast. Three main types of teleconferencing have been identified.
Audio teleconferencing being the most commonly used technique in distance education institution.
Teleconferencing is an electronic means which can bring together three or four people in two or more locations to discuss or share the use of two way and one way video, both full motion and show scan, electronic black boards, facsimile, computer graphic, radio, satellite and videotext.
Role Playing or Dramatization:
A number of techniques are being used currently for the modification of teacher behavior. The simulated social skill training (SSST) is one of them. Cruick Shank (1968) had developed a teacher training system. This system of training is being denoted by several terms such as Role-playing, Artificial teaching, Pilot training, Laboratory method, Clinical method and Inductive scientific method.
It is method of teaching drama and training device of simulation. This method is also termed as simulated social skill training (SSST) or teaching. It is most useful for developing social skills. It is best method of teaching drama, because in this method learners are most active and based on the principle learning by doing.
Following are the main methods of teaching drama.
- Lecture method.
- Ideal drama method.
- Classroom drama method of teaching.
- Stage drama method or dramatization method.
- Review method of teaching.
- Integrated or combined method of teaching.
- The dramatization method and review method are more useful for teaching drama.
Factors that determine the method to be used:
Following are the factors, which determine the method to be used.
- Age of the students.
- Nature of content.
- Class size.
Resources available also determine the method to be used effectively.
Every method requires expertise e.g., project method needs an expert person to provide guidance.
Training method should be selected according to the nature of students depending on the psychological principles.
Lesson Planning Approaches:
Different approaches of lesson planning are given below.
According to Bruce Joyce.
Well Marsha (1980) “Lesson plan is the title given to a statement of the objectives to be realized and the specific means of which these are attained as a result of activities engaged during the period”.
According to Smith B.O. (1983)
“Daily lesson planning involves defining the objectives, selecting and arranging the subject matter and determining the method and procedure”.
Herbartian approach to lesson planning: It is based on an apperceptive theory of learning, i.e. mind of the child is like a clean slate. If the new knowledge related to previous knowledge is given. It will be more say and retainable for a longer period.
This approach is influenced by classical human organization theory because it is a teacher centered approach.
This approach is used for memory level teaching and involves five steps.
This approach is commonly used in teaching of various school subjects. On the basis of five steps outline of a lesson plan is given in the following form.
Date————————– Class————— Period————————–
Introduction (Declaration of topic)
Statement of aim